Using Azure DevOps Artifacts NuGet Feeds from Azure DevOps Pipeline Builds

azure, build, dotnet, tfs, vs comments edit

Azure DevOps has the ability to publish things to a private NuGet feed as part of its artifacts handling.

Working with a private feed from a developer machine running builds from the command line or Visual Studio is pretty easy. There is documentation on using a NuGet credential provider to authenticate with Azure DevOps and make that seamless.

However, getting this to work from a pipeline build is challenging. Once you’ve published a package, you may want to consume it from something else you’re building… but the feed is secured. What do you do?

At the time of writing in this article (February 2019) I was told the second half of 2019 would include some improvements to this. It appears there’s a new NuGetAuthenticate task that might be helpful here. I’m also unclear if any changes have been made in how the NuGetCommand or DotNetCoreCLI tasks deal with authentication. I’ll leave this article as it was for reference. Note as of May 2021, I’m still using option #3 below and it still works.

Option 1: Separate Restore from Build

The documentation shows how to use NuGet or the dotnet CLI for package restore from your feed. Both of the solutions effectively amount to separating the call to NuGet restore or dotnet restore from the rest of your build.

For NuGet, you’d use a NuGet build step (NuGetCommand@2) and specify the restore. Do that before you execute the build on your solution.

For the dotnet CLI, you’d use a dotnet CLI build step (DotNetCoreCLI@2) and indicate the restore command.

In both cases, the special build command will generate a NuGet.Config file on the fly that contains the system access token. The restore operation will use that custom temporary config during the restore and it will succeed.

However, if you later try running dotnet build or dotnet publish it’ll fail - because there’s an implicit restore that runs during those. These will not have the system credentials in place. You have to use --no-restore on builds, for example, to avoid the auto-restore. It can get painful in a larger build.

If you have a build script, like a bash or PowerShell script, manually executing dotnet restore in that script will also not work. You must use the build tasks to get the magic to happen.

Option 2: Use the Azure Artifacts Credential Provider

Another option in the docs is that you can use the Azure Artifacts credential provider. While it seems this is primarily geared toward running on build agents you host yourself, you can possibly get this working on hosted agents.

I have not tried this myself. I went with option 3, below. However, if you want to give it a shot, here’s what you’d do.

First, you’ll want to be aware of how NuGet credential providers work. I don’t mean the internals, but, like, where you need to put the credential provider executable to make it work and how to troubleshoot it. All of that is documented.


  • Download the latest release of the credential provider. Make sure you get the version that will run on your build agent, not your development machine.
  • Follow the instructions in the readme to find the self-contained executable version of the credential provider in the archive you just downloaded.
  • Extract the credential provider to somewhere in the source you’ll be building. Maybe a separate build folder.
  • As part of your build pipeline, you’ll need to…
    • Set the NUGET_CREDENTIALPROVIDERS_PATH to point to the build folder in your checked-out source that contains the provider.
    • On Linux, you may need to chmod +x that provider.
    • Set the VSS_NUGET_EXTERNAL_FEED_ENDPOINTS to indicate the location of your external NuGet feed and provide the system access token. It takes a JSON format: {"endpointCredentials": [{"endpoint":"http://example.index.json", "username":"vsts", "password":"$(System.AccessToken)"}]}

In the VSS_NUGET_EXTERNAL_FEED_ENDPOINTS you’ll notice the use of the $(System.AccessToken) variable. That’s a predefined system variable in Azure DevOps build pipelines. You’ll see that again later.

Anyway, if all the planets have aligned, when you run your standard dotnet restore or NuGet restore, it will use the credential provider for authentication. The credential provider will use the environment variable and magic will happen.

One other note there - the username vsts isn’t special. It can be any value you want, the endpoint doesn’t actually end up checking. It just can’t be omitted.

Option 3: Update NuGet.Config

The final option is to update your NuGet.Config on the fly with the system access token as part of the build. I went with this option because it was simpler and had fewer moving pieces.

In your source you likely already have a NuGet.Config file that has both the standard feed and your private Azure DevOps feed in it. It should look something like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
    <add key="disableSourceControlIntegration" value="true" />
    <clear />
    <add key="NuGet Official" value="" protocolVersion="3" />
    <add key="Azure DevOps" value="" protocolVersion="3" />

The name, Azure DevOps, is the key here. Doesn’t matter what you name it, just make sure you remember it. You’ll need it.

In your build pipeline, before you do any operations to build or restore packages, Use the NuGetCommand@2 task and run a custom command to update the source in that NuGet.Config to have the system credentials attached.

- task: NuGetCommand@2
  displayName: 'Authenticate with Azure DevOps NuGet'
    command: custom
    arguments: sources update -Name "Azure DevOps" -Username "vsts" -Password "$(System.AccessToken)" -StorePasswordInClearText -ConfigFile ./NuGet.Config

What this will do is add the credentials right into the XML of the NuGet.Config as checked out in your source. The NuGet or dotnet commands will already be using that config file to locate your feed, the creds will come along for free.

Items to note:

  • Again, you see that $(System.AccessToken) show up. That’s the magic.
  • If you do this, you need to avoid using DotNetCLI and NuGetCommand tasks that might try to authenticate automatically behind the scenes. The cleartext credentials in the configuration conflict with the credential provider auto-authenticate mechanism and things blow up. This likely means the build steps in your pipeline need to become PowerShell, bash, or MSBuild scripts that do the restore, build, test, publish, etc.
  • You need to have -StorePasswordInClearText or the dotnet CLI won’t be able to use the credentials. If you’re only using NuGet commands, you should be OK not storing in clear text.
  • If you’re on a Linux agent, don’t forget filenames are case-sensitive. If you get an error, make sure you got all the capitalization right for your config file.
  • The source name is case-sensitive. If NuGet.Config has a source named Azure DevOps then the authentication step with NuGet needs to specify the source name as Azure DevOps, too - azure devops won’t work.