Four Types of Code Examples and How to Escape Their Traps

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If you’re writing a programming article or an email to your team, many times you’ll probably try to provide an example code snippet to illustrate the point you’re trying to make. The problem is, regardless of the example, you will most likely fall into one of these losing traps:

The Prose Example

This example is where you try to describe the code in a paragraph like this one, in natural language.

When registering a component for dependency injection, be aware of the lifetime you choose for the component. Choosing the wrong lifetime may mean the component lives longer than you intend. For example, if you have a component that keeps state information based on the current incoming request, you don’t want to keep it around as a singleton.

The trap here is that many people stop reading about five words in and don’t pay attention to what you’re trying to say. TL;DR. Even if the example you’re trying to explain requires some additional detail, attention spans wane and… you’re not even reading this anymore, are you?

The FooBar Example

This example is intentionally obscured from a naming perspective so that people ignore the names and focus on what the code is actually doing. The names “foo” and “bar” are commonly used as placeholders. For example, if you wanted to demonstrate automatically implemented properties in C#, you might show a class like this:

public class Foo
  public string Bar { get; set; }

It’s shorter and more direct than prose, which will keep those ADD engineers at bay… but the trap with this one is that you’ll get people who can’t work through the concepts because of the ambiguous naming, or they can’t figure out where the concept applies because the example was not concrete enough to make sense.

To address this, you get into…

The Imprecise Concrete Example

This is when you want to show a quick example of something but you don’t want people to get hung up on the names for things. The implementation really isn’t important, it’s just an example. Like if you wanted to demonstrate numeric parsing…

public class Address
  public int PostalCode { get; private set; }

  public void ParseAndSetPostalCode(string input)
    this.PostalCode = Int32.Parse(input);

The good part is that it’s more concrete, so the folks who couldn’t figure out the Foobar example can see where a concept might be used. On the other hand, with imprecise examples you inevitably get trapped by people complaining about the design of the code. “Are you sure you wouldn’t want to check for null first? What if the input isn’t a numeric string?”

You see this a lot with some of the quick demos given at presentations - the code isn’t 100% complete and tested (because it’s a demo) but people do the Monday-morning-quarterback thing and wonder why that wasn’t included.

So, that leads you to…

The Precise Concrete Example

This type of example is when you provide some code where all the details are there. It addresses the shortcomings in the imprecise example, but comes with it’s own issues. Like if you were demonstrating how one might use ACLs in the filesystem…

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Security.AccessControl;

namespace SomeNamespace
  public static class FileInfoExtensions
    public static void AllowFullControl(this FileInfo file, string username)
      if (file == null)
        throw new ArgumentNullException("file");
      if (username == null)
        throw new ArgumentNullException("username");
      if (username.Length == 0)
        throw new ArgumentException("Username may not be empty.", "username");
      if (!file.Exists)
        throw new FileNotFoundException(String.Format("Unable to find file {0}", file.FullName), file.FullName);
      var acl = file.GetAccessControl();
      var rule = new FileSystemAccessRule(username, FileSystemRights.FullControl, AccessControlType.Allow);

There are actually three problems with this one.

First, the whole concept you were trying to illustrate is now lost in details. People have stopped looking at the conceptual/high-level thing you were providing an example of and now they’re focused on your error checking and code format. Along with this, these examples are usually sort of long, so you run into the prose example problem again

Second, and related to that first issue, these examples totally open the door tonitpickers (a la Raymond Chen). “Your string formatting wasn’t culture sensitive and you didn’t localize the exception message!”

Finally, you get peoplecopy/pasting the code as though it’s production-ready without bothering to see if it does everything they need it to do, sometimes without even testing the code.


The root of the problem is that people learn in different ways. Some people need that prose example or the Foobar example so they can focus on the concept rather than the details; others need more precise examples so they can see how things actually work in a more “real-world” environment.

There is a two-part solution to this, and it requires cooperation on everyone’s part.

For the people providing examples: Provide multiple examples of the same concept but using different styles. Describe in prose what you’re going to demonstrate and then give a precise concrete example. Or give an imprecise concrete example and clarify it in prose with maybe another example in the Foobar format. The idea here is that between two or more examples, at least one will make sense to folks, or they’ll be able to put concepts from the different examples together to make a complete picture.

The drawback to having multiple examples is that it is longer, so you’ll want to put the shortest bits first to draw the attention in and convey the most info you can up front. This is similar to the pyramid structure used when people write news stories.

For the people reading examples: Don’t get stuck in the details. There is an unspoken contract between folks reading an example and folks presenting examples. When a person is trying to convey some information to you in a succinct fashion, they have to trim things down for time or readability. As the recipient of that information, you need to understand and agree to that. If you get stuck on naming or nitpicking, stop for a second and realize you’re missing the point. If the example is talking about file permissions and there’s a missing null check, don’t worry about it unless you think it actually fundamentally affects your understanding of the example. Feel free to ask questions, but before you do, ask yourself if the question is constructive or would help you understand better… or if you’re just trying to be right about something.


Did I miss an example trap? Ideas on how to provide better examples? Leave a comment!