What I'd Like to See in WiX Documentation
working struggling with WiX for the last few days and I
feel like it’s mostly for two reasons:
- WiX assumes you know MSI. That is, Windows Installer XML is a thin veneer over Microsoft Installer technology, not an abstraction layer for it. I think this is a faulty assumption. While I understand WiX isn’t meant to teach you MSI, if I’m building a new installer and I want to try WiX out, I’m probably not thinking, “Oh, I should go read the entire MSDN library about MSI first.” I’m actually thinking, “I’m building a new installer, I’m building it in WiX, and I should be able to read the WiX documentation or find WiX examples that show me how to do that.”
- WiX documentation is thin. I think this is the result of the faulty assumption in item #1. There is very little linking from the WiX documentation back to the corresponding MSI docs on MSDN so you’d never know that the construct on this WiX page corresponds to this MSI concept. Examples are few and far between. The one tutorial out there assumes you’re building everything by hand and doesn’t really cover the Visual Studio integration that I’m sure people have picked up by now.
I’m guessing there are three schools of thought going on when it comes to contributing to WiX documentation:
- I already know how this works so everyone else must already know as well.
- The “smart user” can go “check out the source and figure it out” so that’s good enough.
- I’ve just struggled for the last week trying to get this to work and now that it does I’m too exhausted and frustrated to contribute anything back.
I know I fall into that last school: I’ve been screwing around with it for so long that, now that it works, I really just want to jump ship and be done with WiX until the next time I have to add something to the installer. Couple that with the fact that, really, while the installer works, I don’t know that what I did was “right,” just that “it works.” It feels very “duct tape and baling wire” so I’m not confident that any contributions I might make to the docs would be the way people should be doing things, just the way I got them working.
Maybe “it works” is the same as “the right way” in installer land? Hmmm. I’ll have to think about that. But I digress.
All that leads me up to a list of things I’d love to see in WiX documentation.
- A disclaimer on the front page saying “you need to know MSI.” Buried a couple of pages down they mention that “in order to fully utilize the features in WiX, you must be familiar with the Windows Installer concepts.” I don’t think that’s quite accurate. On the front page of the site, and on the front page of the docs, there needs to be some big, bold, red, flashing sign that says, “If you don’t know MSI, STOP HERE.” OK, maybe not exactly that, but something up front to set my expectations that I need to know a little something about MSI before I can understand WiX. Either that, or all of the WiX docs need to be updated to stop making that assumption. (I like that better, but I know it’s not realistic.)
- A complete table of contents or index of all help topics. If you go to the main documentation page, you’ll see a fairly short table of contents. Say I want to add a dialog to my installer that gathers some information from the user. Which topic is that under? “How To Guides?” Nope. “Fundamental Tools and Concepts?” Nope. I don’t actually know. Any documentation I was able to find about user interface stuff was through the search box. And since there’s very little cross-linking from concept to concept, I don’t actually know if what I found was what I should have been finding. (Interestingly enough, it appears there’s sort of a one-way warp going on with the table of contents. For example, this page “Customizing Built-in WixUI Dialog Sets” shows, at the top, that it falls under a “Modifying the Installation User Interface” topic, which is under “Creating Installation Packages.” If you look at the “Creating an Installer Package” page, there is no link at all to the “Modifying the Installation User Interface” topic. That whole tree is orphaned.)
- Screen shots of all of the standard dialogs. There is a page that describes the “standard dialog set” that comes with WiX and there are textual descriptions of each of the dialogs… but there is no picture of them, so if you’re troubleshooting your installer, you need to sort of… guess… which dialog you’re looking at. Screen shots would really help to visually identify the dialogs.
- Flow charts of the standard UI. Once you figure out how to get a UI into your installer, you’ll probably want to modify it. Maybe you’ll want to add a new dialog into the flow. Except… what’s the flow? Where do I insert my dialog? I have to know the ID of the dialogs between which I want to insert my custom dialog but there’s no way to find that out. At least, none that I could figure. It was trial and error for me.
- Tips on troubleshooting and debugging. If I get error 2819 in my installer, what the hell is that supposed to mean? I know WiX is just a veneer over MSI and I don’t expect them to reproduce the MSI documentation, but a little “here’s how to troubleshoot issues in your installer” doc would be helpful. Can I add tracing somehow? Can I attach a debugger? What facilities are available to me? Even if there are none, a doc saying “you’re screwed” and a link to the error codes on MSDN would be helpful. Maybe some common solutions to common problems… if there are common problems.
- More cross-linking with relevant MSI documentation. The WiX documentation reads like it’s standalone, but it’s really not. For every document on there, there’s at least one corresponding page of MSDN documentation about MSI that would be helpful. Unfortunately, the only place you really see links to MSI docs are off the “fundamental concepts” page, and even then, there are only three links… and one is just to “the Windows Installer 4.5 SDK.” Not so helpful.
- More advanced how-to guides. Most of the guides on the site - and on the web in general - are “basic guides.” You know, “here’s how to install that EXE you built that has no dependencies, no configuration settings, and doesn’t need anything set in the registry or put into the GAC.” I’m not sure about the major WiX use case, but I don’t think an application that simple even needs an installer, let alone something written in WiX. I’m guessing that folks who have decided to go the WiX route are interested in the more intermediate and advanced scenarios. “I need to install a web site that has a database connection string that needs to be set at install time.” “I have a Windows service to install and it needs to ask for service credentials during install and maybe whether it should run on startup or manually.” Good luck with that.
- Rich examples, particularly around UI customization. One of the things I needed to do in my installer was add a custom dialog to get some data from the user about web site parameters (port number, app pool info). I want to reuse that dialog (sort of like the “Browse for Files” dialog) in different installers and may have to use it multiple times in one installer, sort of like calling a function - a “parameterized” dialog, if you will. This is easy to do in Windows forms apps. Figuring out how to create the dialog, wire it into the flow, send up the right button events, putting that together with “indirect properties,” and so on… it was a nightmare. I found a few reasonable examples of how to set up non-UI related items, but almost nothing except two-or-three line snippets when it came to UI. Even in the UI examples, they didn’t make sense. For example, when you look at an installer, the user gets asked for custom parameters after they choose a Typical/Custom/Complete install… but all of the examples insert dialogs before that choice. Admittedly, it’s easier to do that, but it’s not what you should be doing. Where are the examples that show it the right way? This goes hand-in-hand with the more advanced “how-to” guides idea, above.
- More information about web application deployment. WiX appears to be great about deploying, say, a console application, but if you follow the simple setup example they provide but use a web application instead of a Windows forms application, you’ll find the installer deploys your .dll into the root of the web app, not in the “bin” folder where it should be. How do you fix that? I posted my solution, but there is literally nothing about differences in deploying web apps from other app types. The closest it gets is documentation about “Iis Schema,” which is the extension that allows you to create IIS applications. Usage? Bah! Examples? No way, man. Just schema. Go Google for samples or blog posts if you want more. (Oh, and there’s no way I can tell that you can create an IIS7 application pool with .NET 4 and an integrated pipeline. Guessing that hasn’t made it in yet.)
I think WiX is a pretty powerful thing. I think it could help out a lot of people if it was more easily grasped - there’s a hell of a learning curve on it. I think they could get there if there was some time spent augmenting the docs.
(Dear Wrox: There’s totally a book opportunity here. There is only one book I could find on WiX, it’s from 2004, and several of the reviews claim it as “incomplete” or “not deep enough.” I’d totally buy a more recent, more complete book.)